It means removing the penis from the vagina prior to ejaculation. In theory, this method is probably effective. However, in practice it carries a risk because some semen may escape to vagina which maybe enough to initiate a pregnancy. So it’s not secure.
Of coarse this method is useless because the sperms actually can reach beyond the cervix within 90 seconds after ejaculation.
Most of women while breast feeding don’t ovulate and therefore are protected from pregnancy while breastfeeding. But 6% of women ovulate with the first cycle after delivery.
For women who want to make sure they don’t get pregnant while breast feeding, they should either use the “mini pill” progestin only or barrier methods which are safe during lactation. They shouldn’t try the combined pills of estrogen and progestin.
Commonly used nowadays. It’s a thin sheath (preferably latex as it protects from sexually transmitted diseases). It must be used before intercourse by placing it over the penis, and it collects the semen inside it after ejaculation. This method is cheap and available in pharmacies and even supermarkets. It could be improved by the use of spermicides (sperms killer).
Effectiveness: about 12 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use.
Are chemical jellies, foams, creams or suppositories which are placed into the vagina before sex, they kill the sperms. They are cheap, and available (pharmacy) but not effective enough to be used alone.
Effectiveness: about 21 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year use.
It’s a flexible rubber cup that is filled with spermicidal cream or jelly, and placed inside the vagina enveloping the cervix prior to intercourse. It should be left in place from 6-8 hours after sexual intercourse. It must be prescribed by physician who determines the appropriate type and size for each woman.
Effectiveness: about 18 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use
Vaginal contraceptive sponge
It’s a soft synthetic sponge, impregnated with spermicide, which is moistened and inserted into the vagina, covering the cervix before the intercourse. It is similar to the diaphragm as a barrier mechanism. After the sexual intercourse, the sponge must be left in for 6-8 hours. This method is available without need for prescription in most pharmacies.
Effectiveness: 18 to 28 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use.
Fertility control (natural family planning)
This method is a hard one in which you have to observe a variety of changes in the woman’s body (such as changes in the cervical mucosa, basal temperature…etc) and a calendar is made determine when ovulation usually occur. The couple should avoid sexual intercourse for several days before and after the day on which it is assumed that ovulation occurs. This method require training and practice to recognize the changes in the body as well as a great commitment.
Effectiveness: 15 to 20 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use.
The modern methods
Oral contraceptive pills (combined pills estrogen + progestin)
This method uses a combination of estrogen and progesterone in doses that prevent ovulation and regulate cycles. This method is highly effective if the women remember to take their pill correctly at times. Oral antibiotics may decrease the effectiveness of the pills and birth control. Therefore you should combine it with other way if using oral antibiotics until the next menstrual cycle.
There are various types of oral contraceptives thus for women who get side effects from certain type can try another one, and she must always follow up with her doctor so he adjust the right dose for her and the right type.
Effectiveness: 2-3 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use.
Progestin-only pills (Mini pill)
This type of pill contains progesterone only. It is alternative for those women who want a highly effective method of contraception in a pill, yet sensitive to estrogen or can not take a contraceptive containing estrogen for other reasons such as breast feeding. It is just slightly less effective that the combined type.
Effectiveness: 3 to 7 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year of use.
They are surgically implanted sticks of progesterone usually on the arm. These continually release progestin that inhibits ovulation, changing the linking of the uterus and thickening of the cervical mucous preventing sperms from entering the uterus. They usually last for 5 years. The only limiting factor of this method is its high cost.
Effectiveness: less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in 1 year of use!!
Intramuscular injection of progesterone used on the buttock or arm. Esta inyección evita la ovulación. Una única inyección presta protección anticonceptiva durante un período de 90 días. This injection prevents ovulation. A single injection provides contraceptive protection for a period of 90 days. Este método es altamente efectivo y no depende del cumplimiento de la paciente. This method is highly effective and does not depend on patient compliance.
Efectividad: menos de 1 embarazo por cada 100 mujeres en 1 año de uEffectiveness: Less than 1 pregnancy per 100 women in 1 year of use.
Intrauterine device (IUD)
Small device of copper or plastic, placed in the uterus of women by their gynecologists that makes the uterine environment not suitable for pregnancy. The IUD can be left in the uterus for several years. The method should not be used by women who have a history of pelvic infection, ectopic pregnancy, or having more than one sexual partner (and therefore have a higher risk of acquiring infection sexually transmitted).
Efectividad: entre 2 y 3 embarazos por cada 100 mujeres en 1 año Effectiveness: 2 to 3 pregnancies per 100 women in 1 year
And finally: When to consult your doctor?
Well, you can consult your doctor to request additional information about the desired method. If any failure occurred during usage of one of contraceptive methods (ex. breakage of condom), u should consult your doctor within 24 hours.